Dr. Mark Gardener 


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Tips and Tricks  for R and ExcelOn this page you can find tips, tricks and hints for using both R and Excel. At the end of each tip there are links forwards and backwards as appropriate. There is also an index of R tips and an index of Excel tips. For most analytical purposes the combination of Excel and R is unbeatable! Excel is great as a data management tool and for preparing data for analysis. You can also use it to get an overview of your data or to make simple (and not so simple) graphs. R is an analytical "swiss army knife" and can carry out a mindboggling array of analytical routines as well as producing great graphics. Tips & Tricks for R  Tips & Tricks for Excel  An Introduction to R  MonogRaphs  Writer's Bloc 

Object class logical 
Types of R object – 2. logicalAll R objects have a class attribute, which can be important as R "decides" how to deal with objects based upon their class. Simple 1dimensional objects are called vectors but vector is not a class in itself. A vector can be numeric or character in nature (these are class attributes). You can also have a logical class, which is either TRUE or FALSE. > lv You can create a logical vector by using TRUE or FALSE in a command like c() for example: > lv2 < c(TRUE, FALSE, FALSE, TRUE) R recognises TRUE and FALSE as logical. You must use upper case but you can abbreviate using T or F: > lv3 < c(T, T, F, F) If you are typing commands for yourself then using abbreviations is fine but when your commands are destined to be seen by others then it is a good idea to use the "full" version. 

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See my Publications about Excel, R, statistics and data analysis  Courses in R, data analysis, data management and statistics  Visit the R Project website  
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