Dr. Mark Gardener


Providing training for:

  • Ecology
  • Data analysis
  • Statistics
  • R The statistical programming language
  • Data management
  • Data mining

Tips and Tricks - for R and Excel

On this page you can find tips, tricks and hints for using both R and Excel. At the end of each tip there are links forwards and backwards as appropriate. There is also an index of R tips and an index of Excel tips.

For most analytical purposes the combination of Excel and R is unbeatable! Excel is great as a data management tool and for preparing data for analysis. You can also use it to get an overview of your data or to make simple (and not so simple) graphs. R is an analytical "swiss army knife" and can carry out a mind-boggling array of analytical routines as well as producing great graphics.

Tips & Tricks for R | Tips & Tricks for Excel | An Introduction to R | MonogRaphs | Writer's Bloc

Object class complex


Types of R object – 3. complex numbers

All R objects have a class attribute, which can be important as R "decides" how to deal with objects based upon their class.

You can think of the simple classes as being in different categories:

  • Basic: numeric, character or factor
  • Logical: TRUE or FALSE
  • Complex: A number with real and imaginary parts

You can make a complex number simply by appending an "imaginary" part to an actual number:

> newvec = c(1+1i, 2+3i)
> newvec
[1] 1+1i 2+3i

So, R recognises 2+3i for example as a complex number with real part = 2, imaginary part = 3

The class() command shows that the result is complex:

> class(newvec)
[1] "complex"

There are several commands associated with complex numbers:

> Re(newvec) # The real part of the number
[1] 1 2

> Im(newvec) # The imaginary part
[1] 1 3

> Mod(newvec) # The modulus
[1] 1.414214 3.605551

> Arg(newvec) # The argument
[1] 0.7853982 0.9827937

> Conj(newvec) # The complex conjugate
[1] 1-1i 2-3i

The commands help in dealing with complex numbers. In addition, the elementary trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, square root and hyperbolic functions are implemented for complex values.

Top << Previous Tip: Types of R object – 2. logical >> Next Tip: Vector objects
Follow me...
Facebook Twitter Google+ Linkedin Amazon
Top Tips & Tricks Home Index of R Tips Index of Excel Tips  
More links:

An introduction to R

See my Publications about Excel, R, statistics and data analysis Courses in R, data analysis, data management and statistics Visit the R Project website

See my Publications about statistics and data analysis.

MonogRaphs: random topics in R

Writer's Bloc – my latest writing project includes R scripts

Courses in data analysis, data management and statistics.

My Publications about statistics and data analysis

Managing Data Using Excel, Cover

See my personal pages at GardenersOwn

Top Home
Data Analysis
Contact GardenersOwn Homepage