Dr. Mark Gardener

Home
About

Providing training for:

  • Ecology
  • Data analysis
  • Statistics
  • R The statistical programming language
  • Data management
  • Data mining

Tips and Tricks - for R and Excel

On this page you can find tips, tricks and hints for using both R and Excel. At the end of each tip there are links forwards and backwards as appropriate. There is also an index of R tips and an index of Excel tips.

For most analytical purposes the combination of Excel and R is unbeatable! Excel is great as a data management tool and for preparing data for analysis. You can also use it to get an overview of your data or to make simple (and not so simple) graphs. R is an analytical "swiss army knife" and can carry out a mind-boggling array of analytical routines as well as producing great graphics.

Tips & Tricks for R | Tips & Tricks for Excel | An Introduction to R | MonogRaphs | Writer's Bloc


Vector Objects
vector()
as.integer()

Top

Vector Objects

A vector is a one-dimensional object in R. There is no class specific for a vector but a vector object can be one of several classes, most usually:

  • numeric
  • character
  • logical
  • complex

Your numeric vector can be given as double or integer. Note that a factor is not considered to be a vector.

You can make a blank vector using the vector() command:

> vector(mode = "logical", length = 0)

For example:

> vl = vector(mode = "logical", length = 3)
> vl
[1] FALSE FALSE FALSE

> vc = vector(mode = "character", length = 5)
> vc
[1] "" "" "" "" ""

> vn = vector(mode = "numeric", length = 4)
> vn
[1] 0 0 0 0

> vi = vector(mode = "complex", length = 3)
> vi
[1] 0+0i 0+0i 0+0i

The blank vector you create can be "filled in" later:

> vi[1] = 3+2i
> vi
[1] 3+2i 0+0i 0+0i

Notice though that the value you enter can either be coerced to the appropriate form or alter the class of the vector:

> vc[1] = 23
> vc
[1] "23" "" "" "" ""

The value entered was a number (23) but the vector it is added to remains character in class. In the next example you create an integer vector:

> vi = vector(mode = "integer", length = 3)
> vi
[1] 0 0 0
> class(vi)
[1] "integer"

Adding a value can alter the class:

> vi[1] = 2
> vi
[1] 2 0 0
> class(vi)
[1] "numeric"

In this case the value (2) is taken as a regular double precision numeric value. To force the value to remain an integer you need to use the as.integer() command:

> vi = vector(mode = "integer", length = 3)
> vi[1] = as.integer(2)
> vi
[1] 2 0 0
> class(vi)
[1] "integer"

Now the entered value keeps its integer class.


Top << Previous Tip: Types of R object – 3. complex numbers >> Next Tip: Multi-dimensional objects in R
 
Follow me...
Facebook Twitter Google+ Linkedin Amazon
Top Tips & Tricks Home Index of R Tips Index of Excel Tips  
More links:

An introduction to R

See my Publications about Excel, R, statistics and data analysis Courses in R, data analysis, data management and statistics Visit the R Project website
 

See my Publications about statistics and data analysis.

MonogRaphs: random topics in R

Writer's Bloc – my latest writing project includes R scripts

Courses in data analysis, data management and statistics.

My Publications about statistics and data analysis

Managing Data Using Excel, Cover

See my personal pages at GardenersOwn


Top Home
Data Analysis
Contact GardenersOwn Homepage